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Step 1. Identify Audience

Page: http://bt101.info/step1
Podcast: http://bt101.info/ep03

Step 1 is to identify the audience, reader expectation, genre and goal of the book trailer. This is the first step to putting on your marketing hat and thinking about who and how you are going to pitch the book.

General Audience Characteristics

It is important up front to identify your book trailer audience. For most books, the audience is the targeted reader. For children’s books, it is the purchaser of the books. As an example, a child’s book trailer for a parent/grandparent may differ greatly from one that targets a teacher.

An audience definition of "everyone from 18 years old and up who reads English" means you have not thought about it. No book appeals to that broad of an audience. On one hand, it may seem best to pick a broad audience, but this results in a diluted trailer. If you try to target everyone you will appeal to no one. As an example, Harry Potter books are YA (young adult). They are marketed to YA but have found a much larger audience. YA trailers are aimed at a teen market but often appeal to older readers who enjoy the edge and freshness.

Factors to consider:

  • Target Reader and Target Buyer.
  • Age – is the book age specific
  • Gender - Is it targeted at men vs woman or boys vs girls.
  • Economic situation - Does it cater to a specific economic group.
  • Sensibilities – i.e. does it make sense for the target market. As an example a trailer with explicit language would not work with a deeply religious group.

Why do people read books?

Or phrased another way what is your reader's expectation? At first this seems like a trivial question, but as I thought about it, the answers came down to a few things: to be entertained, to learn something, to be inspired/motivated and to be intrigued by word play.

An understanding of why someone would read your book helps to influence your trailer design. If the book is an escape, then the trailer should convey the avenue to the escape. A mystery could present the puzzle. Let the trailer be the intro to why someone would purchase your book.

FOR ENTERTAINMENT

  • Vicarious experience
  • Escape
  • Have fun
  • Excitement
  • Satisfy imagination

TO LEARN

  • Self-education/gain knowledge
  • School/academia/reference
  • How-to
  • Self-help
  • Improve language skills/expand vocabulary
  • To improve their writing by reading books as examples
  • Professional development
  • Awareness of the world around us

FOR ENLIGHTENMENT/INSPIRATION

  • Therapeutic/coping strategies
  • Motivation
  • Spiritual/religious
  • Validation
  • Poetry/word play
  • Comfort/stress release
  • Understanding

TO PASS TIME

  • Distraction
  • Relaxation
  • Help get to sleep

CURIOSITY

  • What if?
  • Introduction/shallow learning

MENTAL CHALLENGE

  • Solve a mystery
  • Solve a puzzle

SOCIAL REASONS

  • Book club
  • Discuss with others
  • Sense of belonging
  • Impress others

ANTHROPOLOGICAL NEED

  • Inherent instinct/brain wired for language
  • Help us communicate

Does your book trailer convey why a viewer will read your book?

I put a discussion post on Absolute Write Water Cooler (http://bt101.info/wdpr) about this. One of my favourite comments made on this was “Because they’re not edible.”

Book Genres

Link: http://bt101.info/genre

Literary book genres were created to organize book stores. There is no official book genre list. Genres apply to both fiction and non-fiction. Some argue that their book spans genres but a book store will not stock a book in multiple places. Here are some strong lists.

This list describes characteristics of popular genres. It is useful when designing your book trailer.

ACTION/ADVENTURE FICTION

  • Good vs. bad
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • Emphasize plot over character growth
  • Exotic locale
  • Protagonist races to get to some coveted prize or goal first

BIOGRAPHY

  • Non-fiction about a real person, living or dead
  • Research key
  • Usually about well-known people
  • Sub-genre – Autobiography

BUSINESS

  • Wide genre
  • Can be on specific business topics (e.g. customer service) or techniques (e.g. management)
  • Many bestsellers in this genre
  • Computer books fall in this category

CHILDREN’S

  • Uses age-appropriate word choices, yet through context expand vocabulary
  • Fiction or non-fiction
  • Words about bodily functions popular

CHRISTIAN/ RELIGIOUS FICTION

  • Revolves around faith or Christian life
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • No steamy love scenes

COOKBOOKS

  • Recipes, recipes, recipes
  • Photos important
  • Glossary of cooking terms
  • May contain stories about food and ingredients

FAN FICTION

  • Written by fans as an extension of work by others, often TV or film

FANTASY FICTION

  • Set in imaginary realms, improbable in real life yet realistic, magic
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • Unnatural beings
  • Prize or quest
  • Uses fair bit of direct exposition
  • Sub-genre – Light Fantasy
    • Elves, fairies, talking animals
  • Sub-genre – Arthurian
    • Arthur and Camelot
  • Sub-genre – Heroic
    • Human muscular protagonist in conflict with supernatural
  • Suspense important
  • Early fantasy novel was The Hobbit

GAY/LESBIAN/TRANS/BI FICTION

  • Has gay/lesbian/trans/bi main character in mainstream plots of other genres
  • Conflict and suspense important

GRAPHIC NOVEL

  • A comic book with a lengthy storyline, usually with a beginning, middle and end as opposed to a series
  • May be collection of short pieces as opposed to novel
  • Bound more as a book than a typical comic
  • Intended for adults more than children

HEALTH

  • Hot market right now
  • Helpful information about the body
  • May be written by doctors or alternative practitioners
  • Huge growth in this genre in past decade with baby boomers aging

HISTORICAL FICTION

  • Set in past
  • Portray realistically
  • Invites reader to ‘experience’ time period
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • Uses more direct exposition

HORROR FICTION

  • Extremely popular genre
  • Frightens readers
  • Often involves the occult
  • Good vs. evil
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • Darker than fantasy
  • Usually aimed at adults
  • Sub-genre – Vampire (although some consider Vampire a genre)

HOW-TO BOOKS

  • Emphasis on process
  • Task-oriented
  • Focus on technique
  • Results-oriented
  • Often an emphasis visuals

HUMOUR/COMEDY

  • Can be used in fiction or non-fiction
  • Basis in reality critical
  • Element of surprise critical
  • Conflict critical
  • Unlike literary writing, use cliché
  • Sub-genre – Satire
  • Sub-genre – Cartoon
  • Sub-genre – Joke
  • Sub-genre – Parody
  • Sub-genre – Humorous essay
  • Sub-genre – Slapstick
  • Sub-genre – Absurdist
  • Sub-genre – Ironic Truth

LITERARY

  • Often published in hardcover
  • Inspires thought, reflection
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • Focus on style
  • Character-driven stories
  • Psychological depth of characters

MYSTERY/DETECTIVE FICTION

  • Most well-known of plot-driven genre novels
  • May be published in hardcover or paperback
  • Often published as a series with a recurring detective-type character
  • Focus is on a crime
  • Involves multiple suspects and motives
  • Conflict and suspense important for clues
  • Reader MUST know clues the detective knows
  • Can include love scenes
  • Uses fair bit of direct exposition
  • Sub-genre – Amateur Detective
    • Usually male eccentric
    • Usually has helper
    • Usually encyclopedic mind
    • Antagonist known at climax
    • Holmes and Watson
  • Sub-genre – The Cozy
    • Least realistic
    • Violence minimal
    • Cozy setting
    • Local sleuth helps police
    • Jessica Fletcher, Miss Marple
  • Sub-genre – Hard Boiled
    • Gritty “noir” with tough, hard-nosed detectives
  • Sub-genre – Police Procedural
    • Realistic
    • Usually more characters
    • Sub-genre – Private Detective
    • Often doesn’t carry gun
    • Deals with street people
    • Security cases, family cases,
    • P.D. James

NEW AGE / INSPIRATIONAL

  • Started to appear on shelves in 1960s
  • Topics such as astrology, meditation, near-death experience, feng shui, etc.
  • Also Chicken Soup for the Soul–type books
  • Current hot title A New Earth
  • Market increasing for these books

PERSONAL ESSAY

  • Written in first person
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • The story is true, not fiction
  • Expands on a personal situation to comment on a universal topic

POETRY

  • Difficult to define with precision
  • From strict format to open to prose-like structures; expresses ideas/sensations
  • May or may not use rhyme

ROMANCE FICTION

  • Usually published in paperback
  • Character-driven
  • Heavy love scenes OK
  • Typical plot girl meets guy, girl finds guy unappealing, girl grows to love guy
  • Conflict and suspense provide obstacles to lovers
  • Aimed at women readers who want to escape everyday life
  • Sub-genre – Contemporary
    • Modern
    • Honest and open about sex
    • Exotic locale
    • Usually wealthy characters
    • Conflict often about business
  • Sub-genre – Gothic/Mystery
    • Strong suspense
    • Often supernatural
    • Usually young woman arrives
    • Strange things happen
    • Handsome man rescues her
  • Sub-genre – Regency
    • England during late English Georgian era (1811 to 1820)
    • Wit, charm, humour
    • Often mistaken identity involved
    • Research critical
  • Other Romance Sub-genres
    • Time travel
    • Alternate reality
    • Science fiction
    • Bodice ripper (out of vogue)
    • Erotic

SCIENCE FICTION

  • Primarily paperbacks
  • Idea-driven fiction
  • Involves extremely devoted fans
  • Involves real or imagined science that affects society
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • Uses fair bit of direct exposition to explain science aspect if necessary
  • May or may not involve space travel
  • Sub-genre – Apocalyptic/Post Apocalyptic
    • Focuses on the end of the world or just after
  • Sub-genre – Cyberpunk
    • Set in a world of high-tech, almost robotic lifestyle
    • May involve hybrids of human/computers
    • Example The Matrix
  • Sub-genre – First Contact
    • Meeting between humans and aliens
    • Could involve invasion
    • Could involve harmless visitors to earth from advanced worlds
  • Sub-genre – Hard
    • Plot centres around believable science and technology
    • Character’s personal life takes backseat to ideas
    • Classic sci fi fits this sub-genre
  • Sub-genre – Military
    • Focus is on combat in space
    • Opponents may be human, machine, alien
    • Involves high-tech weapons
  • Sub-genre – Near Future
    • Takes place within next few decades
  • Sub-genre – Slipstream
    • Mainstream theme approached with a speculative treatment
    • Example A Handmaid’s Tale
  • Sub-genre – Soft/Sociological
    • Character-driven sci fi
    • Focus on social change
    • Personal psychology has major role
    • Interactions among characters key
    • Technology important only in how it affects people
    • Example A Handmaid’s Tale
  • Sub-genre – Space Opera
    • Good guys and bad guys shoot out in space
    • Example Star Wars
  • Sub-genre – Time Travel
    • Characters travel to past or future, or visitors from past or future come
    • Example Wells’ The Time Machine

SELF-HELP

  • How to learn about or improve some are of life
  • Help in how to solve problems
  • Pop psychology

SPY/ESPIONAGE FICTION

  • Conflict and suspense are key
  • Spy has adventures against enemy
  • Defends country or saves the world

THRILLER FICTION

  • Often take place in exotic locales
  • Offshoot of Mystery BUT with differing points of view, not just detective
  • Thrillers longer than Mystery with more intricate plots
  • Protagonist’s job is to stop enemy plot rather than solve crime that’s been committed
  • More gore and violence than Mysteries
  • More characters than Mysteries
  • Cover a wider scope than Mysteries
  • More threat to protagonist than Mysteries
  • In a Thriller, the fate of a city or the world at stake
  • Often physical threat to protagonist in Thriller, not so in Mystery
  • No heavy love scenes in Thrillers; minimize danger, slow pace
  • Conflict and suspense critical for tension
  • Exciting action; clever plotting
  • The hero may be killed in the process of thwarting the enemy
  • Often involve serial killers sought by FBI
  • Example The Silence of the Lambs
  • Sub-genre – Action Thriller
    • Race against the clock
  • Sub-genre – Conspiracy Thriller
    • Example JFK
  • Sub-genre – Eco-Thriller
    • Protagonist challenged with averting an environmental catastrophe
  • Sub-genre – Legal Thriller
    • Usually lawyer protagonist
    • Usually courtroom setting
  • Sub-genre – Medical Thriller
    • Protagonist is health care professional
  • Sub-genre – Technothriller
    • Technology plays key role in plot
    • Research to make believable
    • Example The Hunt for Red October

TRAVEL WRITING

  • Sub-genre – Travel account of interesting trip (sensuous writing)
  • Sub-genre – Destination guide (where to travel)
  • Sub-genre – Travel guide (how to travel)

TRUE CRIME

  • Based on true story
  • Research thoroughly
  • Exciting retelling of newspaper accounts
  • Murder, robbery, etc.

WESTERN FICTION

  • Usually published in paperback
  • Takes place in the Old West – western Americas during post-Civil War era
  • Involves macho guys on horses
  • Often land conflicts involved
  • Often wealth such as a gold mine involved
  • Relationships critical
  • Usually a sheriff/lawman
  • May involve ‘saloon gals’
  • Revenge a common topic
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • Uses fair bit of direct exposition
  • Can include love scenes

YOUNG ADULT FICTION

  • Main character between 12 and 16
  • No explicit love scenes, but kissing…
  • Conflict and suspense important
  • Can be written into nearly every genre category
  • Example Harry Potter

Used with permission of and developed by Dorothea Helms http://dorotheahelms.com

External Resources

Viral Trailers

What is a Viral Video? Viral used to be defined as a video that has been viewed over a million times. Now this would be just called a popular video. Kevin Nalt's definition is often quoted: "A video, I submit, is 'viral' if it gets more than 5 million views in a 3-7 day period." For book trailer work most of us would be ecstatic with 50,000 views. A video to go viral must have broad appeal. If say a video only appealed to woman then 1/2 of the potential audience is gone. Say you are creating a book trailer on a 17th century historical fiction novel and it gets 50,000 views. Was it viral? I would contend yes as the audience for 17th century England historical novels is pretty narrow. Viral does not equate to expensive or cheap. There are examples at both ends of the cost scale. It does equate to “original.”

British Dictionary definitions for phenom as a person or thing of outstanding abilities or qualities so I will refer to all of these videos as video phenoms. We will look at these videos by how popular they are: viral, near-viral and popular.

Be careful studying viral videos from years ago. Today most people have a smartphone in their pocket so grabbing video is easier. What went viral in 2008 may hardly be noticed now. Cute video of kids saying the damnedest things are a dime-a-dozen.

Goal of the Video

In a book trailer the primary goal is to get the viewer to purchase the book or go to the website for more information. This can not be the primary goal of a viral trailer. Its goal is to get viewers to share and discuss the video on social media. The strategies on the site are for an effective book trailer. These have to be turned on their head to create a viral trailer. So we have:

Goals:

  • Movie Trailer - Watch the movie or buy the DVD
  • Book Trailer - Visit the website or buy the book
  • Viral Video - Share video on social media
  • Viral Trailer - Share video on social media as well as visit the website or buy the book

Step 1. Audience Worksheet

Audience Worksheet
Target Reader:


 
Target Buyer:


 
Target Age:


 
Target Gender:


 
Economic situation:


 
Sensibilities:


 
Book Genre:


 
Reader's Expectation:


 
Trailer Goal: Get viewer to:
1. Visit the website
2. Tell others on social media
 
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